DescriptionA new SX-Aurora TSUBASA vector supercomputer has been released with a new system architecture and a new execution model to achieve high sustained performance, especially for memory-intensive applications. In SX-Aurora TSUBASA, the vector host (VH) of a standard x86 Linux node is attached to the vector engine (VE) of a newly developed vector processor. An application is executed on the VE, and only system calls are offloaded to the VH. This new execution model can avoid redundant data transfers between a VH and a VE that can easily become a bottleneck in the conventional execution model. This paper examines the potential of SX-Aurora TSUBASA. First, the basic performance of SX-Aurora TSUBASA is clarified by evaluating benchmark programs. Then, the effectiveness of the new execution model is examined by using a microbenchmark. Finally, the high potential of SX-Aurora TSUBASA is clarified through evaluations of practical applications.